Ion Minulescu (Romanian pronunciation: [iˈon minuˈlesku]; January 6, 1881 – April 11, 1944) was a Romanian poet, novelist, short story writer, journalist, literary critic, playwright and politician associated with Romanian Symbolism and sometimes cited as one of the models of the early avant-garde. Sometimes publishing his works under the pseudonyms I. M. Nirvan and Koh-i-Noor (the latter being derived from the famous diamond), he journeyed to Paris, where he was heavily influenced by the growing Symbolist movement and Parisian Bohemianism. He had a major influence on local modernist literature, and was among the first local poets to use free verse, though his "free verse" often consisted of regular stanzas split in random lines. He was the first poet associated with Symbolism to acquire popularity outside literary circles, though many critics later argued that he used Symbolist scenery and other elements to achieve a toned-down style of his own that strays from structural Symbolism. While having enjoyed a brief new surge of interest during the peak of postmodernism, Minulescu was described by critics such as Ion Pop as, alongside George Topîrceanu, one of the forerunners of postmodern irony and kitsch.